Konya has many historical, culturel reamins because of being a capital city for especially Seljuk civilization for many years.
ALAADDİN HİLL VE MOSQUE
The history always talks in praise about Alaaddin Keykubat. He is an enlightened protector of the art activities, a proficient commander, a leader and an expert craftsman. He is the one who invited and accommodated an inteligent and a wisdom person Mevlânâ to Konya. However, his the most perfect work that is identical with his name in Konya is the famous palace of Seljuk Sultans which were built at the north of the Alaaddin Hill. The palace that was built up at a very strategic locationin in a strong ramparts has only one wall that is remaingin now. Despite of this Alaaddin Mosque which was built up at the hill is still surviving intact with its impressive beauty. The construction of the oldest and the biggest mosque of the period of Anatolia Seljuk in Konya was begun in the time of Seljuk Sultan Rukneddin Mesut I (1116-1156), was continued at the time of Kılıçarslan II, and was complated in 1221, during the time of Alaaddin Keykubat. The mosque’s architecture was built with Islamic style; its roof was covered by wooden and earth. The most impressive part of the mosque which was built with 41 stone marble colomnar pertained by classical and Byzantine period is its minbar. One of the most significant samples of Anatolia Seljuks wooden embroidery of The minbar made of ebony wooden which is a masterpiece was made by Mengum Berti from Ahlat in 1155. There is a field which was covered by a dome that was decorated by çini (piece of earthenware decorated with opague colored glazes and motifs that are charecteristic of Turkish art) in front of the Mihrap (niche of a mosque indicating the direction of Mecca) which was decorated by çini. Partly çini of the Mihrap and dome was pulled up. Historian Eflaki says that Mevlâna was giving speech when the mosque was built. A mausoleum was added constructured later next to the mosque during the time of Kılıçarslan II. There are eight sarcophagus, which was decorated by çini, belongs to Seljuk Sultans in this mausoleum.
THE INCE MINARE MUSEUM
located in the norht of Alaaddin mosque, was built during the reign of the Seljuk ruler Izzeddin Keykuvas II by the Seljuk vizier Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali as a madrasah to be thought the Hadith study in 1254. It was designed by the architect Kellük bin Abdullah. The stone door which is a masterpiece of stone work of Seljuk is decorated with Seljuk ornamentation written Yasin and Fatih Qur’anic chapters decorated by embossed with geometric and naturel decorations. The internal side of the building consists of courtyard, pavillion, classrooms, and student hostels. Minaret bases were built by hewn stone with brick materials. It has double minaret balcony that is made half pyramit shaped triangle and twelve angled and its body corners are turquoise blue glazed bricks. Its was destroyed up to the first balcony because of a thunderbolt in 1901. It became a public museum in 1956, wherein wooden and stone works of the Rulers of the Seljuk and Ottoman periods are displayed.
THE KARATAY MUSEM
The Karatay musem, located near to the Ince Minare museum, was built by Emir Jelaleddin Karatay who voiced out his name as an outstanging statesman as Sahib Ata Fahreddin Ali through his artistic features of works in 1251. The Karatay museum, which is its architect unknown, was served as a madrasah in Ottoman period unti the end of the 19th century. The Karatay madrasah which is having a considerable role about tile works in the period of Anatolia Seljuk, tuned into a public museum in 1955 as “A Museum of Tile Works”. In Karatay Museum, the excavation findings; wall tiles, tile and glass plates in Kubadabat Palace wherein Beyşehir lake coast and tile, porcelain plates, lamps, gypsum findings in Konya and its around of the Seljuk period and Ottoman periods are displayed in the museum.
THE SIRÇALI MEDRESE MUSEUM
The Sırçalı Medrese which is from a Seljuk period was built by Bedreddin Muhlis in 1242, as a school for the Fıqh (Islamic Jurisprudence). It became a public museum in 1960 as a “Tomb Monuments Museum” is one of the museums decorated by tiles. Historically and artistically significant tombstones which were excavated from graveyards that were expropriated in the city of Konya are classified through its period like Seljuks, Beyliks and Ottomans and are displayed. Even more the tombstones are cronologically classified by its shape, pattern and letter types.
SADREDDİN KONEVİ MOSQUE AND MAUSOLEUM
Sadreddin Konevi mosque was built in 1274 its name was given by Sheykh Sadreddin who is a well-known autstanding schoolar in his time, originally from Malatya settled in Konya. He was born in Malatya in 1207 and passed away in Konya in 1274 had an opportunity to take lessons from schoolars of his century travelled different culturel centres of the Islamic world, had a chance to know closely the life of knowledge and intellect of his period.
Molla Sadreddin who taught Hadith and took attention in respect of that he brought new interpretations to Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi’s thoughts and had a relationship with his contemporary Mevlâna Jelaleddin Rûmî is one of the most autstanding sufi personalities in the history of Sufism.
Who was connected to Mevlâna with a deep love and respect Sadreddin Konevi’s mausoleum is located in the east of the mosque. It is only sole example of open mausoleum style which remains standing. The mausoleum’s shaple looks like Seljuk style kümbet (conical roof). The body is opened, over its basis that is decorated by marble embroidery there is a wooden conical roof like a cage was constructed on the mausoleum which was supported by a cornered tanbur.
SHEMS TABRIZI MOSQUE AND MAUSOLEUM
Considerable changes in Mevlâna Celâleddin Rûmî’s life began after meeting Shems Tabrizi. when he was occupied with teaching in madrasas and giving speeches in the mosques up to this date was complately changed after meeting Shems Tabrizi. Shems Tabrizi whose original name is Mevlâna Muhammed was born in Tabriz, his spiritual seeking was stopped by meeting Mevlâna. Shems who shuns the world and its pleasures devoted himself to worship and pious works, at the end of the three years being together with Mevlâna made a new horizons to be achieved in his life and made him a God lover. Mevlâna did not forget his friend, the Diwan he had written varitably attributed to Shems.
It is said that Shems Tabrizi mosque as known, today in Konya, “Shems Makamı” that has been visited first before visit Mevlâna was first built 13th century. This present construction with mosque together was expanded and reconstructed by Emir Ishak Bey in 1520. However, those who have it made is unknown. The mosque is joined to its parts and it is covered by ceiling from inside and pyramidal conical roof on octagon tambur from outside. The mausoleum which was shaped with eyvan (a vaulted room with one side is open to a court) joines to the mosques along with a wooden Bursa arch which was decorated by pen work. On the other sides there are two windows which were located one at the botom the other one is at the top. It was assuming that under the sarcophagus which is covered one there was a well however, recent investigations made it clear that it was not a well but a mummy storage. The mausoleum that was built its body in stone and conical roof in brick was repaired in 1977.
There are a lot of mosques and madrasah in the city centre which reflect Konya’s magnificien and brilliant periods of time.
Some of them are as follow:
Iplikçi mosque is situated on the Alaaddin street. Construction was built by Shemseddin Altunaba after 1201, expanded and renovated by Somunce Ebubekir in 1332. The mosgue was named Iplikçi because it is located in the Iplikç bazaar. During the period of 1951-1960 it was used as “a museum of calsic works” after 1960 it was turned into a mosque.
SAHİP ATA MOSQUE AND COMPLEX
Sahip Ata, one of the viziers of the Seljuk Empire, had the mosque built between 1258-1283. It includes a tomb, a Turkish bath, and a hanigah. The architect was Abdullah Keluk.
The mosque, located at the west of the Mevlânâ Lodge, was originally begun in 1558 during Sultan Selim II, who was a prince and the governor of Konya, and completed in 1587. The mosque is a prominent example of classical Ottoman architecture in Konya.
At the north of the mosque, there is seven domed narthex which were structured on six columns and a main gate. Two minarets with a balcony are located at the left and the right side of the narthex.
Located at the centre of the city Konya. This mosque is a prominent example of late Ottoman architecture which was made by Hewn Gödene stone. The mosque which was built by Shayh Ahmed between 1671-1676 burnt down in a fire and was reconstructed with the help of Sultan Abdulaziz for the sake of his mother Pertenihal and it was called the present name. The mosque that was constructed in Turk baroque style has two fountaine structured minarets which was located both side of three domed narthex that was situated on six marble column attract attention. It is covered by a commodious dome.
Located in the south direction of Government palace. The mosque was constructed first time by Sheikh Sherafeddin in 12th century. This original building was destroyed completely in 1336 and it was reconstructed by Mehmet Çavuşoglu Bey. The body of the mosque was covered by a huge dome made of hewn stone. The dome was situated on ten elephant feet and it was supported by a half dome in the south. The mihrab is flooding the building. There is second floor mahfils in evry part of the mosque except south part. The mosque was decorated by writings and embroideries. Marble emroidered minber and mihrab are considerably significant art. One balcony minaret was added later.
Located on the Tevfikiye street in the city centre of Konya. Originally it was called Ihyaiyye mosque later it has been called Kapı mosque because the location of the mosque was around one of the gate of the castle of Konya. The mosque first time was constructed by one of the Postnishes of Mewlevi Lodge Pir Hüseyin Çelebi. The mosque which became demolished in time, was reconstructed by Mufti of Konya Esenlizade Seyyid Abdurrahman in 1811. The mosque was burnt down in a fire with the charity shops attached to the mosque in 1867. About the new construction, its inscription dated 1285 H. (1868 A.C.) is hung on the stone gate. The Kapı mosque is the biggest mosque in Konya during the Ottoma period. There is a high narthex which is contructed on ten marble columns located at the north of the mosque and a low arched gate. Besides there are two gates located in the east and the west. The mosque, which was constructed by hewn stones, was covered by a roof from out side by eight domes in different sizes from inside.
HACI VEYİSZADE MOSQUE
The contruction of the mosque, which holds one of the significant scholar’s name Hacı Veyiszada, was begun in 1988. Haci Veyiszade complex, located in the city centre, includes publication, guesthouse, mufti’s office, its capacity is about ten thousand person. The mosque has the highest minarets of the region with two minarets constructed with three balconies 78 metres in high.
The mosque, which is a heirloom of Eşrefoglu Beylik located in the city centre of Beyşehir is one of the significant historical values from past to the future. The mosque which is located on a rectangle field lied down from the north to the south has two gates in the east and the west besides the maing gate. Eşrefoglu mosque was first contructed by an order of Seljuk ruler Sultan Sancar in 1134 later it was reconstructed by Eşrefoglu Süleyman Bey in 1297 became the most significant wonderful arts of the world within wooden works.
SILLE AYA ELENA CHURCH
Sille which has a special meaning for Anatolia civilization and was a place where different cultures were living in peace and a significant centre for early Christiyanity period. After Christ in 327, Byzantium Emperor Constantine’s mather Helena whilst she was going to Quds for pilgrimage stoped off in Konya had saw the significant carved temples from the early Christianity period, she then had decided to have a temple constructed. Aya Elena church reached the present time through many constructions have been applied for centuries. There is an inscription written in Greek alphabet in Turkish about the history of the church where is located over the internal gate. Another three lined inscription indicates that the church was restored at the time of Sultan Mejit. The church was constructed by smooth hewn stone. Rooms that were carved in its courtyard are available. Narthex is approached through the north gate of the church. Bidirectional stone stairs which lead to the women mahfil are located here. The church’s main dome is situated on four elephant feet, it has three nefl. Within the church, the wooden preaching seat (throne-like) which its top was decorated with gypsum and a wooden gypsumed latticework which devides the main hall are an art masterpiece. There are pictures of Christ, holy Mary and apostles on the passing places of the domes and on the columns.
HASBEY DAR'ÜL HUFFAZ
Located in Gaziâlemşah district. It was constructed by Mehmet Bey the son of Hacı Hasbey at the time of Karamanoğlu Mehmet II as “hostel of those who have memorized the Qur’an” in 1421. The brick made body was situated on a square plan and its top was covered by hewn stone along with three sides. The north side where is the main gate was decorated with embroidered marbles. The body of the building was joined to the dome with triangle angleirons. Two each side of the triangles were decorated by tiles. There is also a beautiful mihrab decorated with tiles.
MERAM HASBEY MOSQUE
Located in Meram where is a historical resort. It is constructed for the name of Mehmet the son of Haybey. The mosque was built by hewn stones and covered by an earth roof. Its minbar is rather simple. There is a Dar-ül huffaz located next to the mosque. It is situated on a square plan. And it is now used as a library for children.
GREEN MAUSOLEUM (KUBBE-İ HADRA)
Green mausoleum, located on four elephant feet (thick columns) is a Seljuk masterpiece. It has 16 sliced conical hat from external side. Ayet-el Kürsi is written on the joining point where cylinder and conical hat joins. Dome are decorated with various motifs, decorations and kufi style verses. Mevlâna and Sultan Veled’s graves are located right under the dome. The the double hunched marble sarcophagus over the graves was donated by Süleyman the Magnificent. Sultan Abdülhamit II had the quilt embroidered with gold thread placed over the sarcophagus made in 1894. The sarcophagus which is over the Mevlâna’s father Bahaeddin Veled is a Seljuk masterpiece and was made for Mevlâna in 1274. when Süleyman the Magnificent had a new marble sarcophagus made over the graves of Mevlâna and son in 1565, the original wood one was removed and put over the grave of Mevlâna’s father.
Located in Meram where is a historical resort. It belongs to Sheyh Tavus Mehmet el-Hindi who died at the time of Alaeddin Keykubat I in Konya. The mausoleum, which was constructed by stones and bricks is a simple structure with a tonas domed.
ATEŞ BAŞ VELİ MAUSOLEUM
Located in old Meram road. It is like a clasic Seljuk style tomb. The mauseloum belongs to Mevlevi Ateş Baz Yusuf who died in 1285. it is constructed with eight cornered body made by hewn stones covered with an octagon conical hat made by bricks. There is a door which takes you to the underground where is under the gate which was made stone arched.
GÖMEÇ HATUN MAUSOLEUM
Located in Musalla Graveyard. The mausoleum was designed in a different style compare to the Seljuk mausoleums. Its ground was constructe by pointing arched cradle bingi arch iwan. Most of the sections were built by hewn stone and the rest was built by bricks. It resembles a castle from external view. The iwan within arches are decorated with mosaics. It is said that the mausoleum was built for Anatolia Seljuk Sultan Rükneddin Kılıç Arslan’s wife IV Gömeç Hatun.
ALİ GAV DERVİSH LODGE AND MAUSOLEUM
Located in Tarla district. It is a Dervish lodge in madrasah which was built in 14th century. Ali Gav Baba who one of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli’s relatives is buried. It has four rooms and an iwan.
NASREDDİN HODJA MAUSOLEUM (AKŞEHİR):
A Great philosopher and a master of humour Nasreddin Hodja was born in Sivrihisar stayed in Akşehir and passed away in here. Nasreddin Hodja who has principle to make people think while laughing. His mausoleum is located in a cemetery which is called in his name in the east of the city wall. The present building, which was lost its original apprearance by so many restorations was structured by the city governor Şükrü Bey in 1905. Only the main mausoleum in the middle was left from the old building. The date of his death 683 H. (1284 A.C) where on the top of the marble coffin was written in reverse as 386 to symbolize the humour master’s life.
Konya, which carries such a great civilization in its heart is one of the unique cities that has the most significant examples of civil architectures.
Some of them is here:
Zazadin caravansary was built by one of the Seljuk Emirs Vezier Sadettin Köpek at the time of Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat in 1236 (A.C.).
The caravansary was structured in courtyard style which consisted of an amalgamation of summary and wintery types. It is 104 metres in tall and 62 metres in width. Some pieces wich were used on the external wall of the stone building are from the periods which are before Islam. The caravansary is located in 25 kms on the road of Konya Aksaray in the subdistrict of Tömek.
Located 8 kms from the cith centre on the present Konya-Ankara road for wintery in 1248.
One of the examples of caravansarys which was built in trade roads in the period of Anatolia Seljuk is Obruk caravansary.
Byzantine period stones, which were brought from the ancient settlements, were used in the structure of the wall of the caravansary. Obruk caravansary is located on the road which joins Konya to Aksaray.
Sultan bath, which is a part of the Sahip Ata complex, is still continuing its service in larende street.
The mahkeme bath which is a Turkish bath conveys the manner of cleanliness of Turkish people with historical features is located between Şerafeddin mosque and Şems Tabrizi mosque is still continuing its service.
The bath which was from the period of Beyliks is located at the top of the historical bridge has a great attraction for local and foreing tourists.